INSPIRATIONEN, START-UPS, UMWELT
Kommentare 101

Sneaker? Wie wär’s mit einem Ibi?

Der Ibi enthält keinen neuen Kunststoff und wird hauptsächlich aus Pflanzen, nämlich Bambus, Zuckerrohr und Kork hergestellt. Noch dazu ist er vollkommen CO2-neutral.

Bei der Herstellung eines typischen Turnschuhpaares können etwa 13 Kilogramm CO2-Emissionen entstehen − sowohl durch das Material der Schuhe selbst als auch durch die Energie, die zur Herstellung von zig Einzelkomponenten in durchschnittlich 360 Verarbeitungsschritten benötigt wird.

Der Ibi der Marke Cariuma verkleinert diesen Fußabdruck, da andere Materialien verwendet werden als sonst für Sneaker üblich und das Design vereinfacht wurde. Zusätzlich gleicht das Unternehmen den verbleibenden Fußabdruck aus, wodurch die Turnschuhe klimaneutral werden.

Schön, bequem und umweltfreundlich

Hinter anderen Marken stehen meist „riesige Unternehmen mit einer massiven Produktion, die nicht wirklich darauf ausgerichtet sind, sich um die Umwelt als Ganzes zu kümmern oder auch um die Menschen, die an der Produktion der Schuhe beteiligt sind“, so Fernando Porto, Mitbegründer und Chief Creative Officer von Cariuma mit Sitz in Brasilien. Er beschloss vor rund drei Jahren, seinen Job bei einem größeren Unternehmen aufzugeben, um seiner Idee, Schuhe anders herzustellen als die meisten, zu erforschen. „Für uns wurde klar, dass wir versuchen würden, einen Sneaker zu entwickeln, der gut aussieht, verrückt bequem ist und umweltbewusst hergestellt wird.“

Der Schuh trägt den Namen Ibi und wird für 88 Euro verkauft. Sein oberer Teil ist aus einer Mischung aus Bambus und recyceltem Kunststoff. Das Unternehmen entwickelte eine neue Art und Weise, mit Bambus zu arbeiten. In der Regel wird dieser durch einen harten Prozess in Fasern umgewandelt. Dabei wird das baumartige Material mit einer giftigen Chemikalie aufgelöst, die die Arbeiter gefährden und die Umwelt in der Nähe der Fabrik verschmutzen kann.

Bambus, Zuckerrohr & Kork

Die Anatomie eines Ibi von Cariuma

Beim Cariuma-Verfahren wird der Bambus stattdessen erhitzt, um ihn in Holzkohlepulver zu verwandeln. Durch Mischen dieses Pulvers mit recyceltem PET-Kunststoff lässt sich ein Garn herstellen, das zur Herstellung der Schuhe verwendet werden kann. Wenn der Bambus wächst, bindet er Kohlenstoff, wodurch er als Material kohlenstoffneutral wird. Sobald Bambus geerntet wird, wird die Pflanze an sich nicht abgetötet. Sie wächst weiter und bindet somit mehr Kohlenstoff.

Der Schaum in der Sohle, der bei anderen Produktionen typischerweise aus Petrochemikalien hergestellt wird, besteht beim Ibi aus Zuckerrohr, das beim Wachsen so viel Kohlenstoff bindet, dass er selbst bei der Herstellung kohlenstoffnegativ ist. Jede Tonne des bei anderen Schuhproduktionen  verwendeten Schaumstoffs emittiert bei seiner Herstellung etwa zwei Tonnen Kohlendioxid. Bei einer Tonne des aus Zuckerrohr hergestellten „grünen EVA“ werden diese Emissionen vermieden, und weitere zwei Tonnen Kohlendioxid werden sequestriert.

Die Einlegesohlen im Schuh werden aus Kork hergestellt. Auch die Verwendung von Garn anstelle von größeren Stoffstücken reduziert den Abfall. Das Obermaterial des Schuhs besteht aus nur drei Teilen, was den Herstellungsprozess einfacher als bei einem herkömmlichen Schuh macht und Energie spart. „Zwei Drittel der Kohlenstoffemissionen im [traditionellen] Schuhprozess stammen von der Herstellung“, sagt Porto. „Wenn Sie also während der Entwicklung des Produkts nicht schon im Designprozess daran denken, können Sie das später nicht mehr korrigieren“.

Alle verbleibenden Emissionen, einschließlich der Emissionen aus dem Versand des Produkts an die Kunden, werden durch Projekte ausgeglichen, die unter anderem einen Teil des Amazonas-Regenwaldes schützen.

Nachhaltiges Design

Da ein großer Teil der Umweltauswirkungen von Mode darauf zurückzuführen ist, dass Bekleidung und Accessoires oft schon nach wenigen Verwendungen weggeworfen werden, wollte das Unternehmen Schuhe herstellen, die möglichst lange halten. Elemente des Designs, einschließlich der Art und Weise, wie die Sohle mit dem Rest des Schuhs vernäht ist, machen ihn haltbarer. Eine klassische Ästhetik zu verwenden, anstatt Trends hinterherzulaufen, bedeutet auch, dass die Verbraucher die Schuhe mit größerer Wahrscheinlichkeit weitertragen werden. „Etwas, das wir in unserem Ethos des nachhaltigen Designs fragen, ist: ‚Wird diese Ästhetik auch 20, 30 Jahre später noch angenehm für unsere Augen sein?'“, sagt Porto. „Wenn dem nicht so ist, sollten wir uns nicht darauf einlassen.

Die Schuhe werden auch in einer Fabrik hergestellt, die nach eigenen Angaben einen strikten Verhaltenskodex für das Wohlergehen der Arbeitnehmer einhält. Als das Unternehmen entdeckte, dass sein erster Produktionspartner die Arbeitnehmer für 12-Stunden-Tage einteilte, zog es seinen Vertrag zurück und fand eine andere Fabrik, wodurch sich sogar der Termin für die Markteinführung der Schuhe hinauszögerte.

fastcompany.com

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