Kommentare 89

Lego-ähnliche Bausteine aus CO2? Warum nicht?

Die Entwicklung neuer Technologien, mit denen CO2 aus Kraftwerksemissionen gewonnen und in nützliche Produkte umgewandelt werden kann, ist ein riesiges Forschungsgebiet mit unterschiedlichem Potenzial.

Wissenschaftler in Australien behaupten nun, eine neue Technik entwickelt zu haben, die CO2 in einfache chemische Bausteine transformiert, die sie mit Lego vergleichen. Diese könnten dann in Produkte wie synthetische Kraftstoffe und Kunststoffe umgewandelt werden…. und es soll fast so einfach sein wie das Bauen mit Lego.

CO2 in chemische Bausteine transformieren

Die Arbeiten wurden an der School of Chemical Engineering der University of New South Wales durchgeführt. Das Team machte sich daran, CO2 als umweltfreundlichere Methode zur Herstellung von Synthesegas zu nutzen. Synthesegas wird normalerweise unter Verwendung von Erdgas hergestellt und ist chemisch vielseitig einsetzbar. Es kann zur Herstellung einer Reihe von Brennstoffen und Materialien verwendet werden. Durch die Verwendung von Kohlendioxidabfällen als Ausgangspunkt hofften die Wissenschaftler, ein billigeres und skalierbares Produktionsmittel zu finden und gleichzeitig die Emissionen zu senken.

Der Durchbruch beginnt mit Zinkoxid-Nanopartikeln, die als Katalysator für eine effiziente neue chemische Reaktion dienen. Diese werden erzeugt, indem Zinkoxid einer offenen Flamme ausgesetzt wird, die bei 2.000 °C in einer als Flammenspray-Pyrolyse bezeichneten Technik brennt. Wenn Kohlendioxid mit den resultierenden Zinkoxid-Nanopartikeln in einem Elektrolyseur gemischt wurde, stellte das Team fest, dass sie das Treibhausgas zu einer Mischung aus Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid reduzieren können, bekannt als Synthesegas.

„Synthesegas wird oft als chemisches „Äquivalent“ von Lego angesehen, da die beiden Bausteine − Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid − in unterschiedlichen Verhältnissen verwendet werden können, um beispielsweise synthetischen Diesel, Methanol, Alkohol oder Kunststoffe herzustellen“, sagt Dr. Lovell. „Wir wandeln also im Wesentlichen CO2 in diese Vorläufer um, aus denen all diese wichtigen Industriechemikalien hergestellt werden können.“

Unterschiedliche Mischungen je nach gewünschtem Endprodukt

Laut den Forschern könnte der Partikelverbrennungsprozess so angepasst werden, dass je nach gewünschtem Endprodukt unterschiedliche Mischungen von Synthesegasbausteinen entstehen. Ein Verhältnis von 1 : 1 (Kohlenmonoxid zu Wasserstoff) wäre beispielsweise für Kraftstoff sehr gut geeignet, während ein Verhältnis von 4 : 1 für die Herstellung von Kunststoffen besser wäre.

Was in den Augen des Teams an der Technik so vielversprechend ist, ist die Wirksamkeit des Flammensystems bei der Reduzierung des Kohlendioxids in Synthesegasbausteine. Die Forscher sagen, dass es zwar noch ein langer Weg ist, bis die Technik erweitert wird, um damit auch die Emissionen von Kraftwerken bekämpfen zu können, aber sie sind sehr optimistisch in Bezug auf die Möglichkeiten.

Die Idee ist, eine punktuelle CO2-Quelle wie ein Kohlekraftwerk, ein Gaskraftwerk oder sogar eine Erdgasmine nutzen. Dort wird eine große Menge an reinem CO2 freigesetzt. Die neue Technologie könnte am Ende des Produktionsprozesses stehen und das produzierte CO2 in Produkte umwandeln, die für die Industrie äußerst wertvoll sind.

Sollte die Technik in großem Rahmen funktionieren, wäre das auf alle Fälle ein Schritt in die richtige Richtung.

Die Forschung wurde in der Zeitschrift Advanced Energy Materials veröffentlicht. / University of New South Wales

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